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Argumentation skills a tool to convince others
DEFINITION (source: http://www.philosophypages.com/lg/e01.htm):
An argument is a set of two or more propositions related to each other in such a way that all but one of them (the premises) are supposed to provide support for the remaining one (the conclusion)."
Proposition: a statement that is declared by a declarative statement that can either be true or false. Also commonly referred to as a claim.

Premise: a statement whose truth is used to infer that of others. Think of this as a building block for an argument, or a link in a chain with the last link being your conclusion.

Inference: the relationship that holds between the premises and the conclusion of a logical argument, or the process of drawing a conclusion from premises that support it deductively or inductively.
Conclusion: a proposition whose truth has been inferred on the basis of other propositions assembled with it in a logical argument

1.    The leftovers of clothes production can be used for weaving rugs. (premise)
2.    Use of production leftovers reduces the amounts of waist. (premise)
3.    Reduction of the amounts of waist saves nature resources.(premise)
4.    “Lude”Ltd. use lingerie leftovers so they are saving nature resources. (conclusion)

There are two main types of argument: deductive and inductive.
A deductive argument is one in which it is impossible for the premises to be true but the conclusion false. Thus, the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises and inferences. In this way, it is supposed to be a definitive proof of the truth of the claim (conclusion). Or, in other words: the truth of the premises is supposed to guarantee the truth of the conclusion.

1.    All men are mortal. (premise)
2.    Socrates was a man. (premise)
3.    Socrates was mortal. (conclusion)

An inductive argument is one in which the premises are supposed to support the conclusion in such a way that if the premises are true, it is improbable that the conclusion would be false. Thus, the conclusion follows probably from the premises and inferences. Or in other words: the truth of the premises merely makes it probable that the conclusion is true.

1.    Socrates was Greek. (premise)
2.    Most Greeks eat fish. (premise)
3.    Socrates ate fish. (conclusion)
Questions for you
Can you define what an argument is?
What makes argument stronger and what weakens an argument?

Learn by doing:
1 . Find partner to practice.
2. Choose one of these questions:
·         Can all NGOs become social enterprises?
·         Does recycling help to save resources?
·         Do social enterprises bring positive change to society?
·         Perfect business plan is the key to success of social business?
·         Do you need to generate revenue as soon as possible to be successful?
3.    During 15 minutes create one argument that approves a positive or negative answer to the question. Arguments must contain at least two premises and one conclusion.
4.    Present your argument to partner and evaluate the argument critically. Pay attention to the strength/ plausibility of premises.

Useful resources